Humans and large carnivores significantly impact one another and the socio-ecological contexts in which they live. Historically difficult to deter and quantify, large carnivore poaching has therefore become an important area of conservation action. The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC)'s Predicting Human-Wildlife Conflicts synthesis team recently published a paper in Ambio titled, "A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Illegal Killing of Large Carnivores." This paper reviews the various factors driving large carnivore poaching and develops a framework that takes into account the socio-environmental feedbacks and complexities of illegal large carnivore killings. The authors apply this framework to case studies of tigers in Laos and wolverines in Sweden to highlight its utility. Spanning a series of motivational, vulnerability, and co-occurrence factors, this socio-environmental framework can help guide effective research, policy, and enforcement.