Environmental change impacts the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Significant associations between climate factors and vector-borne diseases have enabled predictive models to be developed that can be used in early warning systems to forecast and anticipate disease epidemics. Malaria is one such vector-borne disease, with a global distribution and significant health burden that is highly sensitive to climatic factors. Additionally, malaria is experiencing a resurgence in transmission, threatening elimination efforts. Malaria is also sensitive to non-climatic factors, such as land-use change, political instability, insecticide resistance and the effectiveness of public health control interventions. A greater understanding of the relative role of climate and non-climate factors in driving malaria transmission is needed to develop predictive models, particularly under future global change scenarios.
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